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دانشگاه الزّهراء

دانشکده الهیّات و ادبیّات

 

پا یا ن نا مه

جهت اخذ درجه کارشناسی ارشد

رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی

 

عنوان

استفاده از موّاد آموزشی اصیل برای پیشرفت درک مطلب شنیداری در کلاس های انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی

 
استاد راهنما
سرکار خانم دکتر کارکیا
 
استاد مشاور
سرکار خانم دکتر قهرمانی قاجار
 
دانشجو
لیلا قادرپناهی
 
 
 
IN THE NAME OF GOD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AL-ZAHRA UNIVERSITY
 
Faculty of Theology and Humanities
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)
 
Thesis Title
Using Aural Authentic Materials to Develop Listening Comprehension in the EFL Classroom
 
 
Thesis Advisor

  1. Karkia Ph.D.

 
Thesis Reader

  1. Ghahremani Ghajar Ph.D.

 
BY
Leila Ghaderpanahi
 
September, 2005
 
 
This thesis is approved by:
 
Dr.P.Karkia (Advisor)
 
________________________________________
 
 
 
Dr.S.Ghahremani Ghajar (Reader)
 
________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Zahra University
Tehran-Iran
September, 2005
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DEDICATION
 
 
 
To my beloved parents
 
for all their love, support and
 
insightful guidance prior and during
 
the completion of this study,
 
for teaching me the value of listening
 
Table of Contents
 
 
Acknowledgement                                                                                      X
 
Abstract                                                                                                      XI
 
List of Tables                                                                                              XII
 
 
Chapter 1: Introduction                                         1
 
 

  • Overview 1
  • Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study 5
  • Significance and Justification of the Study 6
  • Research Questions 7
  • Research Hypotheses 8
  • What Is Known About Listening 8
  • What Is Known About Authentic Materials 10
  • Definition of Important Terms 12
  • Delimitations 13
  • Limitations 14
  • Organization of the Master Thesis 14

Chapter 2: Review of Literature                            15
 

  • Introduction 15
  • Listening Comprehension 15

2.2.1     Definition of Listening                                                     15
2.2.2     Importance of Listening                                                   17
2.2.2.1     Listening and Academic Success                     18
2.2.2.2     Discovery Listening                                          18
2.2.3     Listening as an Academic Process                                    20
2.2.3.1     Knowledge Required for Listening                  20
Process

  • Listening Comprehension versus Reading 21

Comprehension

  • Listening Comprehension 23

2.2.5.1     Authentic and Listening                                 23
Comprehension

  • Different Kinds of Comprehension 24
  • Comprehension Preceding Production 25

2.2.6     Tasks for Listening Comprehension                               25
2.2.6.1     Performing to Indicate Understanding           27
2.2.6.2     Teaching rather than Testing                           28
2.2.7     Inner Speech and Language Learning                             29
2.2.7.1     Listening and Speaking                                    29
2.2.8     Maturation and Language Learning                               30
2.2.8.1     Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal                        31
Development

  • The Role of Background Knowledge in 32

Learning Language
2.2.9.1     Schema Theory                                              32
2.2.9.2     Background Knowledge/Prior                      33
Knowledge
2.2.10  Cultural Background                                                      35
2.3     Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning           36
2.3.1     The Emergency of Communicative Language             36
Teaching

  • Communicative Approach: Some Principles 38

and Features
2.4     The Use of Aural Authentic Materials                                        40
2.4.1     Definitions of Authentic Materials                               40
2.4.2     Authentic Materials and Language Performance         41
2.4.3     Nature of Authentic Texts                                             43
2.4.3.1   Characteristics of Authentic Speech             43
2.4.3.2     Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect         44
 
 
Chapter 3: Methodology                                      46
 
 

  • Introduction 46
  • Summary of the Study 46

3.2.1     Participants                                                                       48
3.2.2     Classroom Observation                                                   49
3.3     Demographic Data of the Students                                               50
3.4     Classroom Environment                                                               52
3.4.1     Setting                                                                                52
3.5     Classroom Practices                                                                       52
3.5.1     Listening Materials Implemented in Class                     52
3.5.2     Class Procedure                                                                53
3.6     Teacher’s Pedagogy                                                                       54
3.7     Interviews                                                                                       55
3.7.1     Interviews with Students                                                 56
3.7.1.1     First Interview                                                  56
3.7.1.2     Second Interview                                              56
3.8     Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                     57
3.9     Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire                                 58
3.10   Data Collection                                                                              59
3.11   Analysis of Data                                                                            60
3.12   Validity and Reliability                                                                63
Chapter 4: Results                                                   64
 

  • Introduction 64
  • Summary of the Study 64
  • Results of the Study 65

4.3.1     Results for Fundamental Research Question:                66
Influences of Aural Authentic Materials
4.3.1.1     Results from the Interviews with Students    67
4.3.1.2     Results from the Class Observation               69
4.3.1.3     Results from the Self-Evaluation                   71
Questionnaire
4.3.2     Summary of Findings Related to the Influences           72
of Aural Authentic Materials
4.3.3     Results for Secondary Research Question#1:               73
Learning Strategy Use
4.3.3.1    Results from the Interview with                     73
students

  • Results from the Class Observation 75
  • Results from the Learning Strategy 76

Questionnaire
4.3.4     Summary of Findings Related to the Learning              77
Strategy Use
 
4.3.5     Results for Secondary Research Question#2:                  79
Attitudes towards Language Learning
4.3.5.1     Results from the Interviews with                      79
Students

  • Summary of Findings Related to the Students’               80

Attitudes towards Language Learning
4.4   Overall Findings of the Study                                                        80
4.4.1   Students with no Progress in Listening Ability                81
4.4.2   Students with Progress in Listening Ability                     82
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 5: Conclusion                                           84
 

  • Introduction 84
  • Summary of the study 84
  • Discussion of Results 86

5.3.1     Authenticity of the Listening Materials                         86
5.3.2     Influences of Aural Authentic Materials on                  89
Listening Comprehension

  • Use of Learning Strategies 92
  • Attitudes towards Language Learning 94

5.4     Conclusions                                                                                    96
5.5     Recommendations                                                                         102
5.5.1     Recommendations for Further Research                        102
5.5.2     Implications for Teaching                                                103
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bibliography                                                                          105
 
Appendices                                                                             123
 
Appendix A                                                                                              124
 
Appendix B                                                                                              125
 
Appendix C                                                                                              129
 
Appendix D                                                                                              131
 
Appendix E                                                                                               137
 
Appendix F                                                                                               145
 
Appendix G                                                                                              147
 
Appendix H                                                                                              148
 
Appendix I                                                                                                149
 
Appendix J                                                                                                150
Appendix K                                                                                              151
 
Appendix L                                                                                               157
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgements
 
 
It is the highest time I seized the opportunity to offer my most genuine and profound words of gratitude to many people to whom I owe the accomplishment of this research. Among many people who have bestowed, most kindly, their invaluable help upon me I should specifically thank my honorable thesis advisor, Dr.Karkia, who patiently went through every line of this thesis and provided me with many insightful comments and invaluable suggestions. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Ghahremani Ghajar, my thesis reader, for her most professional guidelines, meticulous reading of this manuscript, making insightful suggestions and corrections; for her expertise and time. I am also very much grateful to Dr. Rahimi for her critical evaluation, and judgment of this thesis.
Also my thanks and best wishes go to all students who participated in the present study, without whose cooperation this research would not have been conducted.
Last, by no means least, a truly cordial sense of thankfulness to my parents General Ali Ghaderpanahi and Firooze Nobariyan for their support and everlasting encouragement throughout my educational years.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ABSTRACT
The fundamental purpose of this study was to examine the influences of aural authentic materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The secondary purposes of the study were to identify the learning strategies used by EFL students experiencing authentic listening texts and to determine the influences of authentic materials on EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English.
A quantitative and qualitative analysis was offered in this study. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. Sources for designing and implementing effective listening strategy instruction and the transcript of one-hour videotaped session were recorded and analyzed. The results of the listening comprehension posttest were compared to that of the pretest using a 2-tailed t-test (p < .05). A one-way ANOVA on the mean strategy use was applied      (p < .05).The results of the qualitative data analysis were in line with and confirmed that of quantitative. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials in the EFL classroom helped increase students’ comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the foreign language. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in listening ability, as well as the positive effect on EFL students’ motivation to learn the language. Recommendations were offered to ease students’ frustration that resulted from the speed of authentic speech. Pedagogical implications of the results were discussed along with the impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension development.
List of Tables
 
Table 1: Source of Data                                                                           48
 
Table 2: Demographic data of Strategy                                                  51
 
Table 3: Analysis of Data                                                                        62
 
Table 4: Interview Results                                                                       68
 
Table 5: Results from Class Observation                                               70
 
Table 6: Students’ Responses on Self-Evaluation Questio
nnaire       71
 
Table 7: Interviews with Students on Learning Strategy Use              74
 
Table 18: Class Observation on Learning Strategy Use                       75
 
Table 9: Responses to Questionnaire on Learning Strategy Use         78

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